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Superclass dependencies can be implemented using Instance fields .

See Module application and Record modules for details about how the module application is desugared. If defined by hand, mempty would be

Although record types are a natural fit for Haskell-style type classes, you can use instance arguments with data types to good effect. See the examples below.

A seen above, instance arguments in the context are available when solving instance arguments, but you also need to be able to define top-level instances for concrete types. This is done using the instance keyword, which starts a block in which each definition is marked as an instance available for instance resolution. For example, an instance Monoid (List A) can be defined as

Or equivalently, using copatterns :

Top-level instances must target a named type ( Monoid in this case), and cannot be declared for types in the context.

You can define local instances in let-expressions in the same way as a top-level instance. For example:

Instances can have instance arguments themselves, which will be filled in recursively during instance resolution. For instance,

Note the two calls to _==_ in the right-hand side of the second clause. The first uses the Eq A instance and the second uses a recursive call to eqList . In the example ex , instance resolution, needing a value of type Eq (List Nat) , will try to use the eqList instance and find that it needs an instance argument of type Eq Nat , it will then solve that with eqNat and return the solution eqList {{eqNat}} .


At the moment there is no termination check on instances, so it is possible to construct non-sensical instances like . To prevent looping in cases like this, the search depth of instance search is limited, and once the maximum depth is reached, a type error will be thrown. You can set the maximum depth using the flag.

Although instance arguments are most commonly used for record types, mimicking Haskell-style type classes, they can also be used with data types. In this case you often want the constructors to be instances, which is achieved by declaring them inside an instance block. Typically arguments to constructors are not instance arguments, so during instance resolution explicit arguments are treated as instance arguments. See instance resolution below for the details.

1: The executive Power shall be vested in a President of the United States of America. He shall hold his Office during the Term of four Years, and, together with the Vice President, chosen for the same Term, be elected, as follows

2: Each State shall appoint, in such Manner as the Legislature thereof may direct, a Number of Electors, equal to the whole Number of Senators and Representatives to which the State may be entitled in the Congress: but no Senator or Representative, or Person holding an Office of Trust or Profit under the United States, shall be appointed an Elector.

3: T he Electors shall meet in their respective States, and vote by Ballot for two Persons, of whom one at least shall not be an Inhabitant of the same State with themselves. And they shall make a List of all the Persons voted for, and of the Number of Votes for each; which List they shall sign and certify, and transmit sealed to the Seat of the Government of the United States, directed to the President of the Senate. The President of the Senate shall, in the Presence of the Senate and House of Representatives, open all the Certificates, and the Votes shall then be counted. The Person having the greatest Number of Votes shall be the President, if such Number be a Majority of the whole Number of Electors appointed; and if there be more than one who have such Majority, and have an equal Number of Votes, then the House of Representatives shall immediately chuse by Ballot one of them for President; and if no Person have a Majority, then from the five highest on the List the said House shall in like Manner chuse the President. But in chusing the President, the Votes shall be taken by States, the Representation from each State having one Vote; A quorum for this Purpose shall consist of a Member or Members from two thirds of the States, and a Majority of all the States shall be necessary to a Choice. In every Case, after the Choice of the President, the Person having the greatest Number of Votes of the Electors shall be the Vice President. But if there should remain two or more who have equal Votes, the Senate shall chuse from them by Ballot the Vice President. Mizuno Womens Wave Rider 19 Running Shoe Fuchsia Purple/Silver rP4wWpyQ

4: The Congress may determine the Time of chusing the Electors, and the Day on which they shall give their Votes; which Day shall be the same throughout the United States.

5: No Person except a natural born Citizen, or a Citizen of the United States, at the time of the Adoption of this Constitution, shall be eligible to the Office of President; neither shall any Person be eligible to that Office who shall not have attained to the Age of thirtyfive Years, and been fourteen Years a Resident within the United States.

In contrast, the factors identified by Erickson and Cook are meaningful, but not essential. We can all stand to be more conscious of how power disparities contribute to inequality, and it’s never a bad idea to involve end-users in the design of a product. The only really problematic criterion is the question of non-profit vs. for-profit provenance — we must resist ascribing morality to a tax status!

The authors point out several for-profit, non-artist-centered platforms, such as Apple Music, Spotify and Facebook. Yet there are plenty of counter-examples of for-profit technology tools that do put the artist in the center – typically by treating her as the customer to be served. To stick with the music industry, consider CD Baby , which essentially allows independent musicians to serve as their own record labels. It charges them setup fees and takes a cut of sales, but puts them in control of their own catalogs and pays them both the artist’s and the label’s share of royalties. There are countless examples from elsewhere in the arts – digital cameras, graphic design software, film editing tools, some (but not all) crowdfunding platforms.

At the same time, many non-profit efforts fail to heed this principle. I’ll avoid calling out specific peers, but suffice it to say that non-profit initiatives sometimes put the needs and desires of third-party funders ahead of those of artists. The times when I’ve badly misstepped on Artful.ly and other projects have invariably been when I’ve fallen into this trap.

Technology innovation is hurdling onward, propelling us into the future at an ever-accelerating pace. The dangers that Erickson and Cook identify are real. We may yet find ourselves in a dystopian landscape where a handful of mega-corporations control all media consumption and treat artists as just another exploitable resource. This vision is hardly inevitable, however. If we are smart and intentional in our use and design of technology systems, we can just as easily put artists and creators in the driver’s seat. The good news is that the essential principle – make the artist the customer and emphasize her needs above other stakeholders’ – is remarkably easy to identify and equally easy to follow.

Adam Huttler is the founder and Executive Director of Fractured Atlas , a nonprofit technology company for artists. Follow him on Twitter @adamthehutt .

Photo by Tracy Thomas via Unsplash / Creative Commons .

Rose Petals Womens Cayla Black Micro/Patent ypLfIRWjCb

Published March 23, 2016


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